modern invisible ink


Steganography is derived from the two greek words “Steganos” (covered) and “Graptos” (writing), it is the art of hiding information in plain sight dating back to the 4th BC when invisible ink was used to provide secure communication. Unlike cryptography, steganography does not draw attention to the secret message as it is often hidden in a trustful medium rather than being present but in an incomprehensible way.

In the digital era, steganography mediums include texts, audio, video and image files having specific steganographic techniques of each medium, also the uses of steganography has broadened to include watermarking (embedding a secret…

List, Tuple and Dictionary are three of the popular data structures that are used by beginners to advanced programmers to store data. However, for someone who is starting their journey in programming, the difference between them could be confusing.

In this article, i will attempt to present the difference between the three data structures in terms of the following:
1. The memory space each data structure takes to store a given data.
2. The time taken for each data structure to retrieve each stored data.

Memory space taken by List, Tuple and Dictionary

To measure this, one thousand elements are added to each data structure, then the amount…

obtained from:

In 2017, it was estimated that a car accident happens every minute on average in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the estimation was considered an improvement when compared to earlier years.

Thankfully, the Saudi general authority for statistics has published both data sets for anyone to have a look. Since i had access to these data, lets explore the them to gain insight on how recent incidents and developments affected car traffic accidents and casualties.

Turki Baghlaf

A merman who would hook you with insights if you go fishing with data

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